Corporate Leadership, Multilevel Enforcement and Biodiversity Regulation

João Paulo Cândia Veiga, Fausto Makishi, Murilo Alves Zacareli


Globalization incentives the rise of non-state actors in unprecedented ways along with the creation of transnational arenas which are neither international (intergovernmental) nor national (domestic), but transborder political processes where firms, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), states and social communities set up rules and provide governance mechanisms to enforce those at local level. The article is anchored in the idea that public-private governance matters where the primary driver is the market incentive. We test the hypotheses that public-private cooperation at local level is based on shared knowledge and expertise among firms, civil society and state authority dealing with a natural resource which comes from the Brazilian biodiversity. NGOs and companies have developed the ability to act as enforcers as they interpret the public international/national regulation and develop an expertise through ‘best practices’ that are applied to enforce biodiversity regulation at the local level through a multilevel system that operates transnationally.


Corporatism, Governance, Transnational, Regulation, Biodiversity

Full Text:



Abbott KW, Snidal D (2010). International regulation without international government: improving IO performance through orchestration. The Review of International Organizations, v. 5, n. 3, p. 315-344.

Abramovay R, Magalhães R, Schroder M (2010). Representatividade e inovação na governança dos processos participativos: o caso das organizações brasileiras de agricultores familiares.

Auld G (2014). Constructing Private Governance: The Rise and Evolution of Forest, Coffee, and Fisheries Certification. Yale University Press.

Barbieri JC, Cajazeira JER (2015). Responsabilidade Social Empresarial e Empresa Sustentável - da Teoria À Prática. 2ª Ed. Editora Saraiva.

Barreto DW (2012). Patrimônio genético brasileiro: protegê-lo ou aproveitá-lo comercialmente?. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, v. 23, n. 2, p. 191-193.

Bartley T (2007). Institutional Emergence in an Era of Globalization: The Rise of Transnational Private Regulation of Labor and Environmental Conditions1. American Journal of Sociology, v. 113, n. 2, p. 297-351.

Bernstein S (2011). Legitimacy in intergovernmental and non-state global governance. Review of International Political Economy, v. 18, n. 1, p. 17-51.

Börzel TA, Risse T (2010). Governance without a state: Can it work? Regulation & Governance, v. 4, n. 2, p. 113-134.

Büthe T (2010). Private regulation in the global economy: a (P) review. Business and Politics, v. 12, n. 3.

Büthe T, Mattli W (2011). The new global rulers. The Privatization of Regulation in the World Economy, Princeton.

Cashore B (2002). Legitimacy and the privatization of environmental governance: how non-state market-driven (NSMD) governance systems gain rule-making authority. Governance, v. 15, n. 4, p. 503-529.

Clarkson ME (1995). A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of management review, v. 20, n. 1, p. 92-117, 1995.

Coase RH (2012). The nature of the firm. Economica, v. 4, n. 16, p. 386-405, 1937.

Confederação Nacional da Indústria (CNI). Biodiversidade e Indústria – Informações para uma Gestão Sustentável, Brasília, 149 p.

Cutler AC (2003). Private power and global authority: transnational merchant law in the global political economy. Cambridge University Press.

Danley V (2011). Biopiracy in the Brazilian Amazon: Learning from International and Comparative Law Successes and Shortcomings to Help Promote Biodiversity Conservation in Brazil. Fla. A & M UL Rev., v. 7, p. 291.

Donaldson T, Preston LE (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of management Review, v. 20, n. 1, p. 65-91.

Freeman R (1984). Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman, 276p.

Frooman J (1999). Stakeholder influence strategies. Academy of management review, v. 24, n. 2, p. 191-205.

Green JF (2010). Private standards in the climate regime: the greenhouse gas protocol. Business and Politics, v. 12, n. 3.

Hale T, Held D (2011). Handbook of Transnational Governance. Polity.

Hall RB, Biersteker TJ (2002). The emergence of private authority in global governance. Cambridge University Press.

Hardin, G (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, v. 162, n. 3859, p. 1243-1248.

Katsikas D (2010). Non-state authority and global governance. Review of International Studies, v. 36, n. S1, p. 113-135.

Keohane RO (1984). After hegemony: Cooperation and discord in the world political economy. Princeton University Press.

Keohane RO, Ostrom E (1995). Local commons and global interdependence: heterogeneity and cooperation in two domains. London: Sage.

Link AN, Link JR (2009). Government as Entrepreneur, New York, Oxford University Press.

Mattews RCO (1986). The economics of Institutions and the Sources of Economic Growth. Economic Journal, v. 96, n. 4, p. 903-18.

Medida Provisória 2186-16 (2001). Regulamenta o acesso ao patrimônio genético e a repartição de benefícios ( Access: 27th of July, 2015.).

Mitchell RK, Agle BR, Wood DJ (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of management review, v. 22, n. 4, p. 853-886.

North DC (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge University Press.

North DC (1991). Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, v. 5, n. 1, p. 97-112.

Pattberg PH (2007). Private institutions and global governance: the new politics of environmental sustainability. Edward Elgar Pub.

Raynolds LT (2009). Mainstreaming Fair Trade Coffee: from partnership to traceability. World Development, v. 37, n. 6, p. 1083-1093.

Ruggie JG (2004). Reconstituting the global public domain - issues, actors, and practices. European Journal of International Relations, v. 10, n. 4, p. 499-531.

Scott RL (2003). Bio-Conservation or Bio-Exploitation: An Analysis of the Active Ingredients Discovery Agreement between the Brazilian Institution Bioamazonia and the Swiss Pharmaceutical Company Novarts. Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev., v. 35, p. 977.

Williamson OE (2000). The new institutional economics: taking stock, looking ahead. Journal of economic literature, p. 595-613.

Williamson OE (1996). The mechanisms of governance. Oxford University Press.

Young OR (2011). Effectiveness of international environmental regimes: Existing knowledge, cutting-edge themes, and research strategies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, n. 50, p. 19853-19860.

Young O (1999). “Is Enforcement the Achilles' Heel of International Regimes?” In: YOUNG, Oran R. Governance in world affairs. Cornell University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.