Smartphone addiction: proposing ethical codes for minimizing addiction risk at academic institutions
Keywords:ICT, smartphone addiction, academic performance, technology addiction, sources of ethics
AbstractObjectives:The purpose of this paper is to identify some potential sources of ethics which will motivate students to be more committed in guiding themselves on the proper use of Smartphone and in turn reducing the addiction risk.Method:This is a perspective paper that has been developed based on the literature review as well as based on opinion of the author.Findings:The paper argue that pasting some relevant religious teachings on the wall as an art installation in visible places would be a potential solution for minimizing addiction risk. The limitations and potential for further studies are also delineated at the end of the paper.Implications:Findings are useful for educators, policymakers, parents, and practitioners to overcome smartphone addiction risk and thereby improve learning performance. The suggestions presented in this paper from an objective morality point of view will enhance social harmony among the stakeholders within institutions.Contribution:Smartphone addiction is a growing phenomenon among students that endangers them from achieving their goals in academic life. Existing literature mostly sheds light on understanding the nature of addiction and its impact on academic performance. However, there is a dearth of research on how to minimize the addiction risk.
(CIA), C. I. A. (2017). The World Factbook. Population. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html
Aljomaa, S. S., Qudah, M. F. A., Albursan, I. S., Bakhiet, S. F., & Abduljabbar, A. S. (2016). Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, pp.155-164.
Angrist, J., & Lavy, V. (2002). New evidence on classroom computers and pupil learning. The Economic Journal, 112(482), pp.735-765.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9), pp.1175.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational psychologist, 28(2), pp.117-148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efﬁcacy: The exercise of control: New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2014). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 69-128): Psychology Press.
Banerjee, A., Cole, S., Duflo, E., & Linden, L. (2005). Remedying education: Evidence from two randomized experiments in India. Retrieved from
Batchelor, S., Hearn, S., Peirce, M., Sugden, S., & Webb, M. (2003). ICT for development: Contributing to the millennium development goals-Lessons learned from seventeen infoDev projects. World Bank Publications.
Bian, M., & Leung, L. (2015). Linking loneliness, shyness, smartphone addiction symptoms, and patterns of smartphone use to social capital. Social Science Computer Review, 33(1), pp.61-79.
Bowen, R. T. (2017). What Is Ethics? Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition (pp. 19-36): CRC Press.
Chang, C.-S., Liu, E. Z.-F., Sung, H.-Y., Lin, C.-H., Chen, N.-S., & Cheng, S.-S. (2014). Effects of online college student’s Internet self-efficacy on learning motivation and performance. Innovations in education and teaching international, 51(4), pp.366-377.
Chen, L.-Y., Hsiao, B., Chern, C.-C., & Chen, H.-G. (2014). Affective mechanisms linking Internet use to learning performance in high school students: A moderated mediation study. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, pp.431-443.
Cheung, W., & Huang, W. (2005). Proposing a framework to assess Internet usage in university education: an empirical investigation from a student's perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), pp.237-253.
Cuban, L., & Kirkpatrick, H. (1998). Computers Make Kids Smarter--Right? Technos, 7(2), pp.26-31.
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American psychologist, 55(1), pp.34.
Enez Darcin, A., Kose, S., Noyan, C. O., Nurmedov, S., Yılmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2016). Smartphone addiction and its relationship with social anxiety and loneliness. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(7), pp.520-525.
Garcia‐Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2014). The influence of skills, message frame, and visual aids on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27(2), pp.179-189.
Gökçearslan, Ş., Mumcu, F. K., Haşlaman, T., & Çevik, Y. D. (2016). Modelling smartphone addiction: The role of smartphone usage, self-regulation, general self-efficacy and cyberloafing in university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, pp.639-649.
Goolsbee, A., & Guryan, J. (2006). The impact of Internet subsidies in public schools. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(2), pp.336-347.
Hald, G. M., Seaman, C., & Linz, D. (2014). Sexuality and pornography.
Haug, S., Castro, R. P., Kwon, M., Filler, A., Kowatsch, T., & Schaub, M. P. (2015). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland. Journal of behavioral addictions, 4(4), pp.299-307.
Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2016). To excel or not to excel: Strong evidence on the adverse effect of smartphone addiction on academic performance. Computers & Education, 98, pp.81-89.
Hilty, L. M., & Aebischer, B. (2015). Ict for sustainability: An emerging research field ICT Innovations for Sustainability (pp. 3-36): Springer.
Hong, F.-Y., Huang, D.-H., Lin, H.-Y., & Chiu, S.-L. (2014). Analysis of the psychological traits, Facebook usage, and Facebook addiction model of Taiwanese university students. Telematics and Informatics, 31(4), pp.597-606.
Islam, M. S. (2013). Digital Divide & Its Impact on Economic Growth in SAARC Countries. IJAR BAE, 2(2), pp.14-26.
Islam, M. S. (2015). Impact of ICT on women empowerment in South Asia. Journal of Economic & Financial Studies, 3(03), pp.80-90.
Islam, M. S., & Fouji, M. H. (2010). The impact of ICT on students performance: A case study of ASA University Bangladesh. ASA University Review, 4(2), pp.101-106.
Jackson, L., Von Eye, A., Biocca, F., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. (2006). Children’s home Internet use: Predictors and psychological, social and academic consequences. Computers, phones and the internet: Domesticating information technology, pp.145-167.
Kainz, H. P. (1979). Subjective and Objective Morality Ethica Dialectica (pp. 33-51): Springer.
Kim, H.-S., Kil, H.-J., & Shin, A. (2014). An analysis of variables affecting the ICT literacy level of Korean elementary school students. Computers & Education, 77, pp.29-38.
Kuhn, T. S. (2012). The structure of scientific revolutions: University of Chicago press.
Kulik, J. A. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. Technology assessment in education and training, 1, pp.9-34.
Kuo, F.-Y., & Hsu, M.-H. (2001). Development and validation of ethical computer self-efficacy measure: The case of softlifting. Journal of Business Ethics, 32(4), pp.299-315.
Kwon, M., Kim, D.-J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013a). The smartphone addiction scale: development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PloS one, 8(12), pp.e83558.
Kwon, M., Lee, J.-Y., Won, W.-Y., Park, J.-W., Min, J.-A., Hahn, C., . . . Kim, D.-J. (2013b). Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PloS one, 8(2), pp.e56936.
Lee, H., Ahn, H., Choi, S., & Choi, W. (2014). The SAMS: Smartphone addiction management system and verification. Journal of medical systems, 38(1), pp.1.
Margolis, J. (1979). The Prospects of an Objective Morality. Social Research, pp.744-765.
Minow, M. (2013). Words of Justice. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from http://library.law.harvard.edu/justicequotes/
Robeson, M. (2013). Facing Facebook: The addiction to social media and its effects in the classroom. Paper presented at the 2013 Annual Conference.
Salomon, A., & Kolikant, Y. B.-D. (2016). High-school students’ perceptions of the effects of non-academic usage of ICT on their academic achievements. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, pp.143-151.
Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, pp.321-325.
Skorupski, J. (1993). The definition of morality. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements, 35, pp.121-144.
Skryabin, M., Zhang, J., Liu, L., & Zhang, D. (2015). How the ICT development level and usage influence student achievement in reading, mathematics, and science. Computers & Education, 85, pp.49-58.
Smith, T. (2008). The importance of the subject in objective morality: Distinguishing objective from intrinsic value. Social Philosophy and Policy, 25(1), pp.126-148.
Sosin, K., Blecha, B. J., Agarwal, R., Bartlett, R. L., & Daniel, J. I. (2004). Efficiency in the use of technology in economic education: Some preliminary results. The American Economic Review, 94(2), pp.253-258.
SZ, S. S., Omar, S. Z., Bolong, J., & Osman, M. N. (2011). Facebook addiction among female university students. Revista De Administratie Publica Si Politici Sociale, 3(7), pp.95.
Thapa, D., & Sæbø, Ø. (2014). Exploring the link between ICT and development in the context of developing countries: A literature review. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 64(1), pp.1-15.
Tolman, D. L., & Tolman, D. L. (2009). Dilemmas of desire: Teenage girls talk about sexuality: Harvard University Press.
Trucano, M. (2015). Banning and unbanning phones in schools. World Bank Blog on ICT use in eduction. Retrieved from http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/trade/banning-and-unbanning-phones-schools
Wang, Y.-S., Yeh, C.-H., & Liao, Y.-W. (2013). What drives purchase intention in the context of online content services? The moderating role of ethical self-efficacy for online piracy. International journal of information management, 33(1), pp.199-208.
Weeden, J., & Sabini, J. (2007). Subjective and objective measures of attractiveness and their relation to sexual behavior and sexual attitudes in university students. Archives of sexual behavior, 36(1), pp.79-88.
Woessmann, L., & Fuchs, T. (2004). Computers and student learning: Bivariate and multivariate evidence on the availability and use of computers at home and at school.
Yuill, N., Perner, J., Pearson, A., Peerbhoy, D., & Ende, J. (1996). Children's changing understanding of wicked desires: From objective to subjective and moral. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14(4), pp.457-475.
Zhu, Y.-Q., Chen, L.-Y., Chen, H.-G., & Chern, C.-C. (2011). How does Internet information seeking help academic performance?–The moderating and mediating roles of academic self-efficacy. Computers & Education, 57(4), pp.2476-2484
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).